Dysphagia and mechanical ventilation in SARS-COV-2 pneumonia: It’s real

Link to article at PubMed

Clin Nutr. 2021 Nov 23:S0261-5614(21)00527-6. doi: 10.1016/j.clnu.2021.11.018. Online ahead of print.


BACKGROUND & AIMS: Dysphagia can be a consequence of prolonged hospitalization in intensive care units (ICUs) due to severe SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia. This study aims at Identifying the risk factors for dysphagia in ICU patients with COVID-19 pneumonia requiring invasive mechanical ventilation, and at determining the frequency of postextubation dysphagia in this population.

METHODS: Observational, descriptive, retrospective, cohort study of SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia patients admitted into the ICUs from March to May 2020. The Modified Viscosity Volume Swallowing Test (mV-VST) was used to screening for dysphagia during the first 48 h of extubation in patients requiring mechanical ventilation. Descriptive statistics, univariate and multivariate analyses were conducted. A logistic regression was applied to construct a predictive model of dysphagia.

RESULTS: A total of 232 patients were admitted into the ICUs (age [median 60.5 years (95% CI: 58.5 to 61.9)]; male [74.1% (95% CI: 68.1 to 79.4)]; APACHE II score [median 17.7 (95% CI: 13.3 to 23.2)]; length of mechanical ventilation [median 14 days (95% CI: 11 to 16)]; prone position [79% (95% CI: 72.1 to 84.6)]; respiratory infection [34.5% (95% CI: 28.6 to 40.9)], renal failure [38.5% (95% CI: 30 to 50)])). 72% (167) of patients required intubation; 65.9% (110) survived; and in 84.5% (93) the mV-VST was performed. Postextubation dysphagia was diagnosed in 26.9% (25) of patients. APACHE II, prone position, length of ICU and hospital stay, length of mechanical ventilation, tracheostomy, respiratory infection and kidney failure developed during admission were significantly associated (p < 0.05) with dysphagia. Dysphagia was independently explained by the APACHE II score (OR: 1.1; 95% CI: 1.01 to 1.3; p = 0.04) and tracheostomy (OR: 10.2; 95% CI: 3.2 to 32.1) p < 0.001). The predictive model forecasted dysphagia with a good ROC curve (AUC: 0.8; 95% CI: 0.7 to 0.9).

CONCLUSIONS: Dysphagia affects almost one-third of patients with SARS-COV-2 pneumonia requiring intubation in the ICU. The risk of developing dysphagia increases with prolonged mechanical ventilation, tracheostomy, and poorer prognosis on admission (worst APACHE II score).

PMID:34879968 | PMC:PMC8608682 | DOI:10.1016/j.clnu.2021.11.018

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