Front Med (Lausanne). 2021 Nov 10;8:763370. doi: 10.3389/fmed.2021.763370. eCollection 2021.
Background: The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of proton pump inhibitor (PPI) therapy on complications and prognosis in cirrhosis patients with and without acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF). Materials and Methods: Cirrhosis patients with acute decompensation (AD) (n = 489) admitted in our center were enrolled in this prospective observational cohort study. According to treatment received, patients were identified as users or nonusers of PPI. Clinical and laboratory data, complications during hospitalization, and overall survival were recorded in all the patients. Results: Of the 489 patients, 299 (61.1%) patients received PPI therapy. The logistic regression analysis showed that age, albumin, history of previous hepatic encephalopathy (HE), and the chronic liver failure-sequential organ failure assessment (CLIF-SOFA) score were independent risk factors for HE in patients with decompensated cirrhosis [odds ratio (OR) = 1.07, 95% CI: 1.03-1.12, p = 0.001; OR = 1.13, 95% CI: 1.04-1.24, p = 0.006; OR = 242.52, 95% CI: 40.17-1464.11, p < 0.001; and OR = 2.89, 95% CI: 2.11-3.96, p < 0.001, respectively]. Previous severe liver injury and previous bacterial infections were independent risk factors for spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP) in patients with decompensated cirrhosis (OR = 3.43, 95% CI: 1.16-10.17, p = 0.026 and OR = 6.47, 95% CI: 2.29-18.29, p < 0.001, respectively). The multivariate Cox proportional hazards regression model showed that the type and dose of the PPI used were not related to 28-day and 90-day mortality in cirrhosis patients with AD or ACLF. Conclusion: PPI use does not appear to increase mortality or the risk of HE and SBP in the hospitalized cirrhosis patients with and without ACLF.