Cureus. 2021 Oct 23;13(10):e18999. doi: 10.7759/cureus.18999. eCollection 2021 Oct.
Background and aims Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP) is an important cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with cirrhosis. This study aimed to identify the factors impacting morbidity and short-term mortality in a cohort of patients with cirrhosis following an index episode of SBP. Methods In a retrospective study of hospitalized cirrhotic cohort, 333 patient records were reviewed. Demographic, clinical, and laboratory, as well as radiological characteristics of the patient population were analyzed on day 1 of admission. The diagnosis of cirrhosis was based on the combination of laboratory, clinical, and radiological features. The diagnosis of SBP was established by abdominal paracentesis in the presence of cellular, biochemical, and microbiological features consistent with SBP. All independent variables were analyzed to generate a predictive model of mortality by using the Cox proportional hazards regression analysis (adjusted for age and gender). Results A total of 61 cirrhotic patients with ascites and a first episode of SBP were identified. The overall mortality among hospitalized patients was 19.7% and was associated with longer length of stay (12.6 vs. 7.6 days; p=0.01). Patient cohorts with multiple antibiotic resistant bacteria as a cause of SBP had a significantly higher mortality compared to those with other bacterial phenotypes (p=0.03). Multivariate analyses showed that a model for end-stage liver disease (MELD) score (hazard ratio [HR]=1.29; 95% CI: 1.10 to 1.92; p=0.023), Child-Turcotte-Pugh score (HR=1.23; 95% CI: 1.05 to 1.82; p=0.027), and acute kidney injury (HR=2.09; 95% CI: 1.41 to 3.47; p=0.01) were the predictors of mortality from SBP. Conclusion SBP predicts in-hospital mortality in cirrhotic patients. In addition to multiple antibiotic resistant bacteria, thresholds of both hepatic and renal injury independently predict adverse outcomes.