J Intensive Care Med. 2021 Nov 23:8850666211061472. doi: 10.1177/08850666211061472. Online ahead of print.
Purpose: Septic shock (SS) manifests with profound circulatory and cellular metabolism abnormalities and has a high in-hospital mortality (25%-50%). Congestive heart failure (CHF) patients have underlying circulatory dysfunction and compromised cardiac reserve that may place them at increased risk if they develop sepsis. Outcomes in patients with CHF who are admitted with SS have not been well studied. Materials and Method: Retrospective cross sectional secondary analysis of the Nationwide Readmission Database (NRD) for 2016 and 2017. ICD-10 codes were used to identify patients with SS during hospitalization, and then the cohort was dichotomized into those with and without an underlying diagnosis of CHF. Results: Propensity match analyses were performed to evaluate in-hospital mortality and clinical cardiovascular outcomes in the 2 groups. Cardiogenic shock patients were excluded from the study. A total of 578,629 patients with hospitalization for SS were identified, of whom 19.1% had a coexisting diagnosis of CHF. After propensity matching, 81,699 individuals were included in the comparative groups of SS with CHF and SS with no CHF. In-hospital mortality (35.28% vs 32.50%, P < .001), incidence of ischemic stroke (2.71% vs 2.53%, P = .0032), and acute kidney injury (69.9% vs 63.9%, P = .001) were significantly higher in patients with SS and CHF when compared to those with SS and no CHF. Conclusions: This study identified CHF as a strong adverse prognosticator for inpatient mortality and several major adverse clinical outcomes. Study findings suggest the need for further investigation into these findings' mechanisms to improve outcomes in patients with SS and underlying CHF.