Surg Clin North Am. 2022 Feb;102(1):117-137. doi: 10.1016/j.suc.2021.09.005.
Patients with cirrhosis account for 3% of intensive care unit admissions with hospital mortality exceeding 50%; however, improvements in survival among patients with acutely decompensated cirrhosis and organ failure have been described when treated in specialized liver transplant centers. Acute-on-chronic liver failure is a distinct clinical syndrome characterized by decompensated cirrhosis associated with one or more organ failures resulting in a significantly higher short-term mortality. In this review, we will discuss the management of common life-threatening complications in the patient with cirrhosis that require intensive care management including neurologic, cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, pulmonary, and renal complications.