Neurol Clin. 2022 Feb;40(1):113-131. doi: 10.1016/j.ncl.2021.08.008.
The spectrum of demyelinating diseases affecting the central nervous system is broad. Although many have a chronic course, neuroinflammatory conditions often present with acute to subacute onset symptoms requiring hospitalization when severe. This article reviews the acute phase assessment and management of these disorders, with a particular focus on multiple sclerosis, neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder, myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein antibody disorder, and several atypical demyelinating diseases.