A Comparison Between Cefepime and Piperacillin-Tazobactam in the Management of Septic Shock

Link to article at PubMed

Cureus. 2021 Oct 13;13(10):e18742. doi: 10.7759/cureus.18742. eCollection 2021 Oct.


Introduction Septic shock is defined as a dysregulated host response to infection characterized by hemodynamic instability. Concern for the increased risk of acute kidney injury (AKI) with piperacillin-tazobactam in combination with vancomycin may prompt more use of alternative broad-spectrum antipseudomonal beta-lactam antibiotics, such as cefepime. This study assessed whether cefepime was associated with improved outcomes compared to piperacillin-tazobactam in patients with septic shock. Methods This retrospective cohort study included veterans treated for septic shock between September 1, 2008, and August 31, 2018. This study compared cefepime and piperacillin-tazobactam as initial antibiotic management for septic shock. Outcomes included AKI, Clostridioides difficile infection (CDI), hospital length of stay, intensive care unit mortality, and mortality within 30 days of hospitalization. Results In total, 240 patients were included in this study (120 in each cohort). The proportion of AKI was 60.0% in the piperacillin-tazobactam cohort compared to 58.3% in the cefepime cohort (p = 0.90). Mortality was significantly higher in the cefepime cohort. There were no significant differences in CDI or hospital length of stay. Conclusion The results of this study do not suggest that the use of the antipseudomonal beta-lactam antibiotic used in the initial management of septic shock is associated with differences in the AKI or CDI. The higher mortality observed with cefepime may warrant further investigation.

PMID:34790489 | PMC:PMC8587520 | DOI:10.7759/cureus.18742

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