JPEN J Parenter Enteral Nutr. 2021 Nov 16. doi: 10.1002/jpen.2267. Online ahead of print.
BACKGROUND: New randomized controlled trials have been conducted since publication of the 2016 ASPEN/SCCM critical care nutrition guideline. This guideline updates recommendations for foundational questions central to critical care nutrition support.
METHODS: The Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) process was used to develop and summarize evidence for clinical practice recommendations. Clinical outcomes were assessed for (1) higher vs lower energy dose (2) higher vs lower protein dose (3) exclusive isocaloric PN vs EN (4) supplemental PN (SPN) plus EN vs EN alone (5a) mixed oil lipid injectable emulsions (ILE) vs soybean oil, and (5b) Fish oil (FO) containing ILE vs non-FO ILE. To assess safety, weight based energy intake was plotted against hospital mortality when study heterogeneity precluded meaningful Forest plot inferences.
RESULTS: Between 1/1/2001 and 07/15/2020, 2,320 citations were identified and data were abstracted from 39 trials, including 20,578 participants. Patients receiving FO had decreased pneumonia rates of uncertain clinical significance. Otherwise, there were no differences for any outcome in any question. Due to lack in certainty regarding harm, the energy prescription recommendation was decreased to 12-25kcal/kg/day.
CONCLUSION: No differences in clinical outcomes were identified among numerous nutritional interventions, including higher energy or protein intake, isocaloric PN or EN, supplemental PN, or different ILEs. As more consistent critical care nutrition support data become available, more precise recommendations will be possible. In the meantime, clinical judgment and close monitoring are needed. This paper was approved by the ASPEN Board of Directors. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.