Immun Inflamm Dis. 2021 Nov 11. doi: 10.1002/iid3.563. Online ahead of print.
INTRODUCTION: Hyperinflammatory state has a role in the pathogenesis of COVID-19. Anakinra could reduce inflammation and help to combat the condition. In this study, we aimed to assess the safety and efficacy of anakinra (PerkinRA®) in severe COVID-19.
METHOD: The study was an open-label, randomized, controlled trial conducted in Imam Hossein Medical Center from May to July 2020. Patients with a confirmed diagnosis of COVID-19 were included in this study. We administered anakinra 100 mg daily intravenously. All patients received COVID-19 pharmacotherapy based on the represented national guideline. The need for invasive mechanical ventilation is considered the primary outcome.
RESULTS: Thirty patients were included in this study, and 15 of them received Anakinra. Nineteen patients were male (63.3%), and 11 were female (36.7%). The mean age of patients was 55.77 ± 15.89 years. In the intervention group, the need for invasive mechanical ventilation was significantly reduced compared to the control group (20.0% vs. 66.7%, p = .010). Also, these patients had a significantly lower length of hospital stay (p = .043). No significant higher rate of infection was recorded.
CONCLUSION: Anakinra as an immunomodulatory agent has been associated with the reduced need for mechanical ventilation in patients admitted to intensive care units because of severe COVID-19. The medication reduced the hospital length of stay. Furthermore, no increased risk of infection was observed. Further randomized placebo-controlled trials with a larger sample size are needed to confirm these findings.