J Cardiol. 2021 Oct 29:S0914-5087(21)00244-6. doi: 10.1016/j.jjcc.2021.09.009. Online ahead of print.
BACKGROUND: Direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs) have been used to prevent cardiogenic embolism in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF). No evidence has been established for the follow-up renal function evaluation intervals. We hypothesized that a proposed follow-up interval of renal function can be estimated by patient's baseline characteristics including creatinine clearance (CCr).
METHODS: We conducted a single-center retrospective study at Kindai University Hospital from May 2011 to December 2017. Patients were screened and they were enrolled if baseline CCr of ≥50 mL/min. To provide a periodical synchronization for measurements of CCr in all patients, these were evaluated at four different time points (approximately at 3, 6, 9, and 12 months). Primary endpoint was defined as a CCr value of <50 mL/min during the follow-up period. We analyzed associations between the cumulative risk for renal endpoint and baseline characteristics by the Kaplan-Meier method and the Cox proportional hazards model.
RESULTS: Renal endpoint was associated with age (95% CI: 0.07 to 0.21, p<0.01), body weight (95% CI: -0.09 to -0.01, p<0.01), CCr (95% CI: -0.18 to -0.07, p<0.01), and CHA2DS2-VASc score (95% CI: 0.14 to 0.63, p<0.01). Combining baseline CCr of <60 mL/min and other risk factors, acceptable intervals for 5% risk levels were 78 days (age ≥75 years old), 100 days (CHA2DS2-VASc score of> 4 points), and 90 days (body weight <60kg), respectively. Under conditions of baseline CCr of <60 mL/min, age ≥75 years old, CHA2DS2-VASc score of> 4 points, or body weight <60 kg, an increased risk of renal endpoints is 4.85, 3.29, 1.24, 2.44 fold, respectively.
CONCLUSIONS: We propose a risk-stratified follow-up interval for renal evaluation in patients with AF and DOACs therapy according to a combination of baseline CCr and other risk factors.