Angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors and angiotensin II receptor blockers and outcomes in patients with acute decompensated heart failure: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Link to article at PubMed

Expert Rev Cardiovasc Ther. 2021 Nov 9. doi: 10.1080/14779072.2021.2004121. Online ahead of print.


BACKGROUND: : Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor (ACEi) and angiotensin-receptor blocker (ARB) are cornerstones in the treatment of heart failure with reduced ejection (HFrEF). However, there are limited data on their risk-benefit profile in patients with acute heart failure requiring hospitalizations.

METHODS: : We did a meta-analysis pooling data from all studies examining the use of ACEi/ARB in patients hospitalized for heart failure compared to patients without ACEi/ARB use. We calculated pooled hazard ratios (HR) and their 95% confidence intervals (CI) using a random-effects model.

RESULTS: Twenty-five studies were included in the meta-analysis. Continued use of ACEi/ARBs in hospitalized patients with HFrEF was associated with lower 1-year mortality risk (pooled HR 0.68 [0.60-0.77] p<0.001) and with lower 1-6 -year mortality risk in those with heart failure preserved ejection fraction(HFpEF) (pooled HR 0.86 [0.78-0.94] p=0.002). There were significant reductions in 1-year HF readmissions among hospitalized HFrEF patients (pooled HR 0.83 [0.73-0.95] p=0.005), including the effect of mortality as a competing risk.

CONCLUSION: Maintaining or initiating patients with HFrEF hospitalized for acute decompensated heart failure (ADHF) on ACEi/ARB is associated with a reduce risk of mortality and 1-year admissions, but the effect size is lower among those with HFpEF with more heterogenous outcomes.

PMID:34751630 | DOI:10.1080/14779072.2021.2004121

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