Proton pump inhibitor use and the risk of peritoneal dialysis associated peritonitis

Link to article at PubMed

Intern Med J. 2021 Oct 31. doi: 10.1111/imj.15601. Online ahead of print.


BACKGROUND: The use of proton-pump inhibitors (PPI) has been associated with an increased risk of developing spontaneous bacterial peritonitis in patients with cirrhosis. Whether PPI use confers a similar risk in developing peritonitis in peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients remains unclear.

METHODS: Patients on PD were retrospectively identified. Data such as PPI use during PD, underlying diagnoses, comorbidities, and baseline serum tests were collected. Univariable and multivariable analysis was conducted using logistic regression to assess whether PPI use and other factors were associated with PD peritonitis.

RESULTS: 57 patients were identified with a median(interquartile range(IQR)) age of 65.0(51.5-74.0) years. The median(IQR) time on PD was 29.0(17.5-45.0) months. 28 patients were on a PPI during PD. 57% of the PPI group went on to develop peritonitis, compared to 31% of patients without PPI exposure (OR=2.96, 95% CI:[1.00, 8.78], p=0.050). Months on PD (OR=1.03, 95% CI:[1.00, 1.06], p=0.026), serum urea (OR=0.88, 95% CI:[0.80, 0.97], p=0.017), congestive cardiac failure (OR=5.44, 95% CI:[1.29, 23.00], p=0.021) and renovascular disease (OR=14.59, 95% CI:[1.68, 126.67], p=0.015) were identified as possible risk factors for peritonitis on univariable analysis. Following adjustment for covariates, serum urea, but not PPI use, was associated with PD peritonitis (OR=0.87, 95% CI:[0.78,0.98], p=0.020).

CONCLUSION: PPI use during PD was not associated with peritonitis. Due to the small number of patients and the limited number of studies investigating the effect of PPI use on PD peritonitis, further research is needed. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

PMID:34719853 | DOI:10.1111/imj.15601

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