Infect Drug Resist. 2021 Oct 14;14:4217-4226. doi: 10.2147/IDR.S335868. eCollection 2021.
BACKGROUND: There has been an increasing number of COVID-19 patients around the world. Since some patients developed with gastrointestinal bleeding, our study focused on the clinical features and gastroscopic findings of these patients, and factors associated with occult gastrointestinal bleeding.
PATIENTS AND METHODS: In this retrospective, observational study, we collected 368 COVID-19 patients who performed fecal or gastric occult blood from Wuhan Tongji Hospital, Jin Yin-tan Hospital, and Wuhan Union Hospital between February 1, 2020 and March 6, 2020. Clinical features were compared between patients with or without occult gastrointestinal bleeding, and gastroscopic findings of seven patients were described. Logistic regression analyses were performed to explore the factors associated with occult gastrointestinal bleeding.
RESULTS: In total, 43 (11.7%) patients presented occult gastrointestinal bleeding, whereas 35 (81.4%) of severe cases. CRP level, prothrombin time and D-dimer were higher, while lymphocyte count and albumin levels were decreased in patients with occult gastrointestinal bleeding. Gastroscopy in seven COVID-19 patients showed mucosal congestion, erosion or scattered bleeding at different sites. Albumin levels (OR, 0.856 [95% CI 0.793-0.924]; p < 0.001), prothrombin time (OR, 1.267 [1.089-1.475]; p = 0.002) on admission and severe disease (OR, 4.157 [1.765-9.791]; p = 0.001) were independent factors associated with GIB in COVID-19 patients, while antiviral drugs and glucocorticoid therapy were not associated with it.
CONCLUSION: COVID-19 patients with occult gastrointestinal bleeding suffered from worse prognosis. Patients with decreased serum albumin levels or prolonged prothrombin time, and severe cases were at higher risk of occult gastrointestinal bleeding.