Med Clin North Am. 2021 Nov;105(6):1135-1150. doi: 10.1016/j.mcna.2021.05.017. Epub 2021 Sep 7.
Primary hyperparathyroidism is a common endocrine disorder. It used to present as a highly symptomatic disease before the advent of the multichannel autoanalyzer, now usually presenting as mild asymptomatic hypercalcemia. A newer presentation has been increasingly identified in the past two decades, normocalcemic primary hyperparathyroidism, presenting with elevated parathyroid hormone concentrations and consistently normal serum calcium. These patients are usually symptomatic, with parathyroid hormone levels measured in the evaluation for kidney stones or osteoporosis. It is important to exclude causes of secondary hyperparathyroidism. This review will focus on the evaluation and management of elevated parathyroid hormone levels in normocalcemic patients.