Cardiol Clin. 2021 Nov;39(4):527-537. doi: 10.1016/j.ccl.2021.06.005.
Renal artery stenosis is caused by atherosclerosis and fibromuscular dysplasia and is associated with ischemic nephropathy, renovascular hypertension, and accelerated cardiovascular disease. Routine screening for renal artery stenosis is not recommended but is reasonable in patients who have rapid onset of hypertension, resistant hypertension, progressive renal insufficiency, recurrent pulmonary edema, or repeat admissions for heart failure. Acute mesenteric ischemia is caused by arterial embolism or thrombosis, mesenteric venous thrombosis, or nonocclusive mesenteric ischemia, whereas chronic mesenteric ischemia is most often caused by arterial obstruction. This article reviews the epidemiology, pathophysiology, diagnosis, and management of these two conditions.