Transpl Int. 2021 Oct 20. doi: 10.1111/tri.14144. Online ahead of print.
BACKGROUND: There is no consensus regarding the optimal duration of antibiotic therapy for urinary tract infection (UTI) following kidney transplantation (KT).
METHODS: We performed a retrospective study comparing short (6-10 days) vs prolonged (11-21 days) antibiotic therapy for complicated UTI among KT recipients. Univariate and inverse probability treatment weighted (IPTW) adjusted multivariate analysis for composite primary outcome of all-cause mortality or readmissions within 30 days and relapsed UTI 180 days were performed.
RESULTS: Overall, 214 KT recipients with complicated UTI were included; 115 short-course treatment (median 8, interquartile range [IQR] 6-9 days), 99 prolonged-course (median 14, IQR 12-21 days). The composite outcome occurred in 33 (28.6%) in the short-course group and 30 (30%) in the prolonged-course group; relapsed UTI occurred in 19 (16.5%) vs 21 (21%), respectively. Duration of antibiotic treatment was not associated with any of these outcomes. The only risk factor for mortality/readmissions in multivariate analysis was deceased donor. No differences between groups were demonstrated for length of hospital stay, rates of bacteremia, resistance development, and serum creatinine at 30 and 90 days.
CONCLUSIONS: We found no difference in clinical outcomes between KT recipients treated for complicated UTI with short-course antibiotic (6-10 days) vs longer course (11-21 days).