Gram-negative endocarditis: disease presentation, diagnosis and treatment

Link to article at PubMed

Curr Opin Infect Dis. 2021 Oct 19. doi: 10.1097/QCO.0000000000000788. Online ahead of print.


PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Gram-negative bacilli (GNB) cause between 1% and 10% of infective endocarditis (IE). Most episodes are caused by microorganisms of the Haemophilus spp., Aggregatibacter spp. Cardiobacterium spp., Eikenella spp., and Kingella spp (HACEK) group. The frequency of IE caused by non-HACEK (GNB-IE) has increased in recent years. Uncertainties persist regarding its best medical treatment and the appropriateness and timing of surgical treatment. In addition, there are new drugs with activity against multiresistant microorganisms, of which there is little experience in this disease. We review this topic by answering the most frequently asked questions that arise among our colleagues.

RECENT FINDINGS: HACEK microorganisms cause 1.5-2% of IE with only a 2% mortality. In contrast, non-HACEK GNB-IE accounts for 2.5-3% of all IE cases and is associated with nosocomial acquisition, advanced age, solid organ transplantation and 20-30% mortality. Drug addiction is important in areas with epidemic opioid abuse.

SUMMARY: The frequency of IE caused by GNB has been modified in recent years. HACEK episodes are no longer treated with ampicillin and aminoglycosides. In non-HACEK GNB-IE, combination therapy with a beta-lactam and a quinolone or aminoglycoside is recommended. The surgical indication and its value are evident in many patients. Management should rely on a collaborative group with experience in this disease.

PMID:34670255 | DOI:10.1097/QCO.0000000000000788

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