J Vasc Access. 2021 Sep 30:11297298211045589. doi: 10.1177/11297298211045589. Online ahead of print.
BACKGROUND: The majority of hospitalized patients receive a Peripheral Venous Catheter (PVC) in the course of their treatment. Extravasation injury is a serious complication of intravenous treatment.
OBJECTIVE: This cross-sectional survey designed study aims to investigate nurses' knowledge and experience related to short peripheral venous catheter extravasation.
METHOD: The study sample included 145 nurses working in a university hospital in the west of Turkey. A questionnaire developed in accordance with the literature was used for data collection. The data were assessed by frequency and proportions.
RESULTS: Of the nurses included in this study, 26.2% reported they had experienced extravasation injury in a patient; 74.5% said they had received no instruction in the management of extravasation during their in-service training program; and 85.5% stated they did not keep a record of extravasation. 89.7% of the nurses reported infused medications as a cause of extravasation, and 81.4% reported catheter sites as a cause. Among the medications reported by the nurses as causing extravasation: 89.7% reported contrast agents; 84.8% TPN solutions; 71.0% cytotoxic agents; and 65.1% mannitol. The symptoms of extravasation reported by nurses included: swelling (97.9%), redness (97.2%), pain (92.4%), rise in temperature (65.5%), and ulceration (60.0%). In responding to the occurrence of extravasation, interventions reported by the nurses included: stopping the flow of fluid (98.6%), elevation (89.7%), cold application (76.6%), and aspiration of drug (40.7%).
CONCLUSION: Based on these results, it is recommended that guidelines are developed for the management of extravasation, that periodic in-service training programs are provided and that observational studies are carried out into the administration of vesicant drugs.