Cureus. 2021 Aug 20;13(8):e17326. doi: 10.7759/cureus.17326. eCollection 2021 Aug.
Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA), a gram-negative rod-shaped bacterium, is one of the most common pathogens causing colonization and infection of the respiratory tract and lungs in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). Antibiotic therapy is the mainstay treatment for PA infection, and tobramycin is one of the widely used antibiotics in intravenous or inhalation form. This review aims to explore if there is any advantage of adding systemic antibiotics to tobramycin inhalation therapy by comparing the combination regimen to tobramycin inhalation monotherapy in CF patients with PA infection. We collected studies relevant to our review topic by doing a literature search on multiple databases. According to the currently available studies, the addition of oral antibiotics such as fluoroquinolones and azithromycin to tobramycin inhalation solution (TIS) provides no additional benefit in eradicating PA infection or producing clinical improvement in cystic fibrosis patients. However, adding intravenous antibiotics to TIS has not produced conclusive results and thus requires further research. We recommend conducting more randomized controlled trials comparing different treatment regimens, which may help discover the most beneficial treatment regimen with decreased systemic side effects.