Heart Fail Clin. 2021 Oct;17(4):547-560. doi: 10.1016/j.hfc.2021.05.001. Epub 2021 Jul 22.
Advanced heart failure, an end-stage disease characterized by high mortality and morbidity despite standard medical therapy, requires various therapeutic strategies like heart transplant and long-term mechanical circulatory support. Echocardiography is the main imaging technique to identify transitions to advanced stages of disease and guide risk stratification and therapeutic decision-making processes. Progressive development of advanced echocardiographic techniques allows more comprehensive assessment of the hemodynamic and structural profiles of patients with advanced heart failure, and its use in clinical practice continues to expand. This article provides an overview of basic and emerging echocardiographic tools to assess patients with advanced heart failure.