Pharmacotherapy review: Emerging treatment modalities in transthyretin cardiac amyloidosis

Link to article at PubMed

Am J Health Syst Pharm. 2021 Sep 7:zxab356. doi: 10.1093/ajhp/zxab356. Online ahead of print.


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PURPOSE: This review aims to summarize the evidence and pharmacological characteristics of treatment options for transthyretin amyloid cardiomyopathy (ATTR-CM). Additionally, this review highlights the role of clinical pharmacists in helping to secure newly introduced therapies.

SUMMARY: ATTR-CM, a disease characterized by misfolded protein that is deposited in the myocardium and disrupts cardiac functioning, has historically been underdiagnosed due to the need for invasive biopsy and an illusion of rarity. Once diagnosed, limited treatment modalities for ATTR-CM have led providers to rely on nonpharmacological remedies or off-label use of medications with limited evidence of benefit. However, recent noninvasive diagnostic advancements and heightened disease state awareness have revealed increased prevalence of ATTR-CM. This has led to the introduction of several first-in-class pharmaceuticals with actions targeted at inhibiting the various phases of amyloidosis: TTR stabilizers include diflunisal and first-in-class, Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved tafamidis; TTR silencers include patisiran and inotersen; fibril disrupters include doxycycline with tauroursodeoxycholic acid; and alternative agents include green tea extract and curcumin.

CONCLUSION: ATTR-CM treatments have emerged and, despite current limited data, are continuing to evolve. Tafamidis, the only agent approved by FDA for ATTR-CM, shows promise to improve survival and quality of life in patients with ATTR-CM. Pharmacists can play a key role in assisting with agent selection for this disease state, as well as providing knowledge about current and future clinical trials evaluating the safety and efficacy of the available treatment modalities.

PMID:34491302 | DOI:10.1093/ajhp/zxab356

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