Pharmacy (Basel). 2021 Aug 18;9(3):141. doi: 10.3390/pharmacy9030141.
Fluoroquinolones are associated with an increased risk of Clostridioides difficile infection (CDI). Probiotic supplementation has been shown to reduce the risk of antibiotic-associated diarrhea with variable effects on CDI. The objective of this study was to evaluate receipt of probiotics on development of primary CDI among hospitalized patients receiving fluoroquinolones. A retrospective cohort was evaluated that consisted of two groups of 100 patients each, admitted August 2018 through August 2020 that received ≥3 days of definitive monotherapy with levofloxacin or ciprofloxacin within 72 h of admission. Primary outcome was incidence of CDI. Secondary outcomes included rates of C. difficile diagnostic stool testing, additional infectious diagnostic testing, and non-CDI related gastrointestinal side effects. Patients on fluoroquinolones who received probiotics had a non-statistically significantly lower incidence in overall cases of CDI compared to those who did not receive probiotics (0% vs. 3%, p = 0.246). Patients who received probiotics had statistically significantly fewer C. difficile diagnostic stool tests performed (4% vs. 16%, p = 0.005) and fewer additional infectious diagnostic testing performed (4% vs. 10%, p = 0.096), respectively. Further research is warranted to optimize and standardize probiotic prescribing in high-risk patients.