Sci Rep. 2021 Aug 23;11(1):17016. doi: 10.1038/s41598-021-96380-x.
To assess the usefulness of lung ultrasound (LUS) for identifying community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) among adult patients with suspected lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI) and for discriminating between CAP with different cultural statuses, etiologies, and outcomes. LUS was performed at internal medicine ward admission. The performance of chest X-ray (CXR) and LUS in diagnosing CAP in 410 patients with suspected LRTI was determined. All possible positive results for pneumonia on LUS were condensed into pattern 1 (consolidation + / - alveolar-interstitial syndrome) and pattern 2 (alveolar-interstitial syndrome). The performance of LUS in predicting culture-positive status, bacterial etiology, and adverse outcomes of CAP was assessed in 315 patients. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve for diagnosing CAP by LUS was significantly higher than for diagnosis CAP by CXR (0.93 and 0.71, respectively; p < 0.001). Pattern 1 predicted CAP with bacterial and mixed bacterial and viral etiologies with positive predictive values of 99% (95% CI, 94-100%) and 97% (95% CI, 81-99%), respectively. Pattern 2 ruled out mortality with a negative predictive value of 95% (95% CI, 86-98%), respectively. In this study, LUS was useful in predicting a diagnosis of CAP, the bacterial etiology of CAP, and favorable outcome in patients with CAP.