JAC Antimicrob Resist. 2021 Aug 12;3(3):dlab099. doi: 10.1093/jacamr/dlab099. eCollection 2021 Sep.
BACKGROUND: Infective endocarditis, typically caused by Gram-positive organisms such as viridans group streptococci and Staphylococcus aureus, is associated with high mortality and morbidity and requires aggressive, prolonged antimicrobial treatment and sometimes surgery. Dalbavancin, a lipoglycopeptide active against Gram-positive pathogens, has a long half-life, which allows IV treatment as one dose or two doses with a prolonged interval, offering personalized treatment for complex psychosocial situations or facilitating early discharge. In the absence of randomized controlled trials in infective endocarditis, current evidence derives from real-world case series involving off-licence use. The Austrian Society for Infectious Disease and Tropical Medicine includes dalbavancin as an option for infective endocarditis.
OBJECTIVES: This retrospective case series reports use of dalbavancin in a small cohort of patients with infective endocarditis treated at Lancashire Cardiac Centre, Blackpool Teaching Hospitals Foundation Trust, UK.
RESULTS: The pharmacy database included 11 patients in whom dalbavancin was used to address either complex psychosocial circumstances or the need for early discharge. The endocarditis multidisciplinary team selected dalbavancin from available treatment options. Structures affected by infective endocarditis included aortic, mitral and tricuspid valves; aortic composite grafts; implantable cardioverter defibrillator leads; and prosthetic aortic valves. Eight patients underwent surgery; three were managed conservatively with antibiotics. Dalbavancin was curative in all but one patient, whose signs and symptoms of infection improved. No patients developed adverse reactions.
CONCLUSIONS: Dalbavancin is an alternative treatment option at hospital discharge when conventional antibiotics may not be suitable due to complex psychosocial issues or early discharge is required.