Radiol Clin North Am. 2021 Sep;59(5):875-886. doi: 10.1016/j.rcl.2021.05.010.
Fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) PET/CT is sensitive to metabolic, immune-related, and structural changes that can occur in tumors in cancer immunotherapy. Unique mechanisms of immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) occasionally make response evaluation challenging, because tumors and inflammatory changes are both FDG avid. These response patterns and sequelae of ICI immunotherapy, such as immune-related adverse events, are discussed. Immune-specific PET imaging probes at preclinical stage or in early clinical trials, which may help guide clinical management of cancer patients treated with immunotherapy and likely have applications outside of oncology for other diseases in which the immune system plays a role, are reviewed.