Cureus. 2021 Jul 12;13(7):e16332. doi: 10.7759/cureus.16332. eCollection 2021 Jul.
Background and objective The recent emergence of new molecules like angiotensin receptor-neprilysin inhibitor (ARNI) has highlighted the need for an update in heart failure (HF) management, as they have proven to yield better patient outcomes compared to the traditional angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor/angiotensin II receptor blocker (ACEI/ARB) use. This study aimed to compare HF-related hospitalization and death in patients on either ACEI/ARBs or ARNI in a local setting. Methods This two-arm interventional study was conducted in the cardiology and internal medicine units of a tertiary care hospital in Pakistan from July 2018 to December 2020. After enrollment, participants were randomized into two groups as per 1:1 ratio using an online research randomizer software (https://www.randomizer.org). Group A received 24/26 or 49/51 mg sacubitril/valsartan twice daily for HF. Group B received 2.5 or 5 mg enalapril twice daily. Patients were followed up for 12 months or till the development of an event. Results The sacubitril/valsartan group had significantly fewer HF-related hospitalizations compared to the enalapril group (13.8% vs. 22.4%; p-value: 0.03), with a relative risk reduction (RRR) of 38.3%. The sacubitril/valsartan group had 52% RRR for HF-related deaths compared to the enalapril group. Conclusion Based on our findings, treatment with sacubitril/valsartan was superior to enalapril in reducing the risk of hospitalization and death related to HF. The magnitude of the beneficial effects of sacubitril/valsartan as compared to enalapril on cardiovascular mortality was at least as high as that of long-term treatment with enalapril.