Med Clin North Am. 2021 Sep;105(5):939-954. doi: 10.1016/j.mcna.2021.05.013.
Dysphagia, defined as impairment of the swallowing process, is a common symptom and can be a significant source of morbidity and mortality in the general population. This article summarizes the causes of the condition, its prevalence, and the consequences and costs of untreated dysphagia. The aim of this article is to provide a framework for the general internist in assessing, diagnosing, and managing dysphagia in an adult patient. Basic diagnostic screening procedures and techniques for management are emphasized. A basic treatment pathway based on cause is provided for reference.