Mayo Clin Proc. 2021 Aug 5:S0025-6196(21)00428-6. doi: 10.1016/j.mayocp.2021.05.020. Online ahead of print.
Administration of fluid is a cornerstone of supportive care for sepsis. Current guidelines suggest a protocolized approach to fluid resuscitation in sepsis despite a lack of strong physiological or clinical evidence to support it. Both initial and ongoing fluid resuscitation requires careful consideration, as fluid overload has been shown to be associated with increased risk for mortality. Initial fluid resuscitation should favor balanced crystalloids over isotonic saline, as the former is associated with decreased risk of renal dysfunction. Traditionally selected resuscitation targets, such as lactate elevation, are fraught with limitations. For developing or established septic shock, a focused hemodynamic assessment is needed to determine if fluid is likely to be beneficial. When initial fluid therapy is unable to achieve the blood pressure goal, initiation of early vasopressors and admission to intensive care should be favored over repetitive administration of fluid.