J Clin Med. 2021 Jul 10;10(14):3059. doi: 10.3390/jcm10143059.
Hyponatremia is the most common electrolyte disorder, commonly affecting older hospitalized individuals; however, the literature is not clear regarding its effect on mortality. The aim of this 2-year observational prospective cohort study was to evaluate the mortality and re-admission rates, the clinical and laboratory characteristics and the causes of hyponatremia in patients older than 65 years admitted with a corrected serum sodium of 130 mEq/L or less in an internal medicine ward of a tertiary Greek university hospital. During the observation period, 138 patients (mean age 80.5 years, 36.2% male) fulfilled the inclusion criteria and were prospectively followed for 1 year after admission. Symptoms of hyponatremia were present in 59.4% of patients. Hypovolemia was the main sole cause of hyponatremia, but in about one third of patients, hyponatremia was multifactorial. Only a low proportion of patients (12.3%) fulfilled the criteria of the syndrome of inappropriate antidiuresis (SIAD) at admission according to the current guidelines. The re-admission rates at 3- and 12-months following discharge was 34.2% and 51.8%, respectively. Mortality during hospitalization was 17.4% and was higher compared to non-hyponatremic admitted older patients, while the total mortality at 1 year after admission was 28.3%, indicating that hyponatremia at admission is a marker of significant mortality during and after hospitalization in elderly patients.