Kidney Transplant Recipients Infected With Coronavirus Disease 2019: Retrospective Qatar Experience

Link to article at PubMed

Transplant Proc. 2021 Jun 11:S0041-1345(21)00405-X. doi: 10.1016/j.transproceed.2021.06.001. Online ahead of print.


BACKGROUND: This study aimed to evaluate the incidence of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection on kidney transplant, mortality, and risk factors associated with infection acquisition and severe illness in kidney transplant recipients with COVID-19.

METHODS: Of 693 kidney transplant recipients who reported to our center, 249 were tested for COVID-19 by throat and nasal swab reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. Of these, 43 recipients tested positive and 206 recipients tested negative. Among the 43 positive recipients, 9 were treated within an isolation facility, 25 were admitted to the hospital, and 9 were admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU). Risk factors associated with positive results and ICU admission were evaluated.

RESULTS: COVID-19 was found in 6% of transplant recipients. Asian ethnicity (p = .003), history of hypertensive nephropathy (p = .01), AB blood group (P = .04), and higher tacrolimus trough levels (P = .007) were more frequent in the COVID-19 positive than in the COVID-19 negative group. ICU admission was more frequent in recipients presenting with fever, shortness of breath, and acute allograft dysfunction. Renal replacement therapy was required in 3 (7%) of 43 recipients, and mortality was reported in 1 (2.3%) recipient. Acute allograft dysfunction was an independent risk factor for severe COVID-19 (odds ratio, 93.7; 95% confidence interval, 2.37-3710.94; P = .02).

CONCLUSIONS: Higher tacrolimus targets may be associated with COVID-19 development. Acute kidney injury during the COVID-19 course may be a sign of severe disease. Prognostication of COVID-19 severity in kidney transplant recipients is crucial for early recognition of critical illness and may ensure early intervention.

PMID:34275597 | DOI:10.1016/j.transproceed.2021.06.001

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