Cutaneous Manifestations of COVID-19: Early Diagnosis and Prognostic Information

Link to article at PubMed

Adv Exp Med Biol. 2021;1327:119-127. doi: 10.1007/978-3-030-71697-4_9.


Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a multiple organ disease caused by SARS-CoV-2 virus infection. Among the organs and tissues affected by the disease, the skin has received less attention. Skin is the largest tissue in the body and is responsible for temperature maintenance, protection against external dangers and dehydration, and other roles. Although the skin manifestations of COVID-19 are common, the lack of standardization in the description of its signs makes it difficult to group them together. Considering the literature available so far, the skin manifestations can be divided into 4 patterns: exanthem, urticarial lesions, vascular and acro-papular eruptions. The localization, age, onset, symptoms and severity vary among them. The treatment, when necessary, is usually focused on the inflammatory response control. The pathophysiological mechanisms seem to involve the apoptosis of keratinocytes as well as endothelial cell dysfunction, favouring the establishment of skin inflammation. The better characterization of the skin manifestations is essential to understand the possible effects of COVID-19 on skin as well as for the development of appropriate treatments.

PMID:34279833 | DOI:10.1007/978-3-030-71697-4_9

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