Curr Opin Infect Dis. 2021 Jul 12. doi: 10.1097/QCO.0000000000000763. Online ahead of print.
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The aim of this study was to review recent data evaluating the duration of antibiotic therapy in central venous catheter-related bloodstream infection (CRBSI) due to Gram-negative bacilli (GNB).
RECENT FINDINGS: CRBSI is the most common complication associated with the use of intravascular catheters. CRBSI directly contributes to increase additional days of hospitalization, morbidity and therefore economic costs.The incidence of GNB CRBSI has been increasing considerably in the last years; this has raised a concern due to the high reported rate of multi drug resistant bacteria in these infections what poses a considerable challenge for effective treatment. However, there are no specific guidelines for management of GNB-CRBSI and optimal treatment duration has not been clearly defined.Recent studies evaluating the impact of the duration of antibiotic therapy of GNB-CRBSI have shown that short-course antibiotic therapy might be as effective as long-course therapy once the central venous catheter (CVC) has been removed.
SUMMARY: CRBSI due to GNB has shown a rapid increase in the last years. Current guidelines recommend antibiotic treatment for at least 7-14 days, although no randomized clinical trials have evaluated the optimal duration of antibiotic therapy for GNB-CRBSI. Recent data suggest that administration of appropriate antibiotic therapy for 7 days or less may be as well tolerated and effective as longer courses in episodes of GNB-CRBSI, once the CVC has been removed.