Relationship between angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors or angiotensin receptor blockers and COVID-19 incidence or severe disease

Link to article at PubMed

J Hypertens. 2021 Aug 1;39(8):1717-1724. doi: 10.1097/HJH.0000000000002866.


BACKGROUND: Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) or angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) may be associated with higher susceptibility of COVID-19 infection and adverse outcomes. We compared ACEI/ARB use and COVID-19 positivity in a case-control design, and severity in COVID-19 positive patients.

METHODS: Consecutive patients who attended Hong Kong's public hospitals or outpatient clinics between 1 January and 28 July 2020 for COVID-19 real time-PCR (RT-PCR) tests were included. Baseline demographics, past comorbidities, laboratory tests and use of different medications were compared between COVID-19 positive and negative patients. Severe endpoints for COVID-19 positive patients were 28-day mortality, need for intensive care admission or intubation.

RESULTS: This study included 213 788 patients (COVID-19 positive: n = 2774 patients; negative: n = 211 014). In total, 162 COVID-19 positive patients (5.83%) met the severity outcome. The use of ACEI/ARB was significantly higher amongst cases than controls (n = 156/2774, 5.62 vs. n = 6708/211014, 3.17%; P < 0.0001). Significant univariate predictors of COVID-19 positivity and severe COVID-19 disease were older age, higher Charlson score, comorbidities, use of ACEI/ARB, antidiabetic, lipid-lowering, anticoagulant and antiplatelet drugs and laboratory tests (odds ratio >1, P < 0.05). The relationship between the use of ACEI/ARB and COVID-19 positivity or severe disease remained significant after multivariable adjustment. No significant differences in COVID-19 positivity or disease severity between ACEI and ARB use were observed (P > 0.05).

CONCLUSION: There was a significant relationship between ACEI/ARB use and COVID-19 positivity and severe disease after adjusting for significant confounders.

PMID:34188006 | DOI:10.1097/HJH.0000000000002866

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