J Am Heart Assoc. 2021 Jun 26:e020012. doi: 10.1161/JAHA.120.020012. Online ahead of print.
Background It remains unclear whether beta-blocker use at hospital admission is associated with better in-hospital outcomes in patients with acute decompensated heart failure. Methods and Results We evaluated the factors independently associated with beta-blocker use at admission, and the effect of beta-blocker use at admission on in-hospital mortality in 3817 patients with acute decompensated heart failure enrolled in the Kyoto Congestive Heart Failure registry. There were 1512 patients (39.7%) receiving, and 2305 patients (60.3%) not receiving beta-blockers at admission for the index acute decompensated heart failure hospitalization. Factors independently associated with beta-blocker use at admission were previous heart failure hospitalization, history of myocardial infarction, atrial fibrillation, cardiomyopathy, and estimated glomerular filtration rate <30 mL/min per 1.73 m2. Factors independently associated with no beta-blocker use were asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, lower body mass index, dementia, older age, and left ventricular ejection fraction <40%. Patients on beta-blockers had significantly lower in-hospital mortality rates (4.4% versus 7.6%, P<0.001). Even after adjusting for confounders, beta-blocker use at admission remained significantly associated with lower in-hospital mortality risk (odds ratio, 0.41; 95% CI, 0.27-0.60, P<0.001). Furthermore, beta-blocker use at admission was significantly associated with both lower cardiovascular mortality risk and lower noncardiovascular mortality risk. The association of beta-blocker use with lower in-hospital mortality risk was relatively more prominent in patients receiving high dose beta-blockers. The magnitude of the effect of beta-blocker use was greater in patients with previous heart failure hospitalization than in patients without (P for interaction 0.04). Conclusions Beta-blocker use at admission was associated with lower in-hospital mortality in patients with acute decompensated heart failure. Registration URL: https://www.upload.umin.ac.jp/; Unique identifier: UMIN000015238.