J Am Heart Assoc. 2021 Jun 25:e021342. doi: 10.1161/JAHA.121.021342. Online ahead of print.
Background Contrast-induced acute kidney injury (CI-AKI) is a serious complication after percutaneous coronary intervention. The mainstay of CI-AKI prevention is represented by intravenous hydration. Tailoring infusion rate to patient volume status has emerged as advantageous over fixed infusion-rate hydration strategies. Methods and Results A systematic review and network meta-analysis with a frequentist approach were conducted. A total of 8 randomized controlled trials comprising 2312 patients comparing fixed versus tailored hydration strategies to prevent CI-AKI after percutaneous coronary intervention were included in the final analysis. Tailored hydration strategies included urine flow rate-guided, central venous pressure-guided, left ventricular end-diastolic pressure-guided, and bioimpedance vector analysis-guided hydration. Primary endpoint was CI-AKI incidence. Safety endpoint was incidence of pulmonary edema. Urine flow rate-guided and central venous pressure-guided hydration were associated with a lower incidence of CI-AKI compared with fixed-rate hydration (odds ratio [OR], 0.32 [95% CI, 0.19-0.54] and OR, 0.45 [95% CI, 0.21-0.97]). No significant difference in pulmonary edema incidence was observed between the different hydration strategies. P score analysis showed that urine flow rate-guided hydration is advantageous in terms of both CI-AKI prevention and pulmonary edema incidence when compared with other approaches. Conclusions Currently available hydration strategies tailored on patients' volume status appear to offer an advantage over guideline-supported fixed-rate hydration for CI-AKI prevention after percutaneous coronary intervention. Current evidence suggests that urine flow rate-guided hydration as the most convenient strategy in terms of effectiveness and safety.