Circ J. 2021 Jun 22. doi: 10.1253/circj.CJ-20-1215. Online ahead of print.
BACKGROUND: Many heart failure (HF) guidelines recommend sodium restriction for patients with HF, but the outcome of sodium restriction counseling (SRC) for HF patients is still unknown. We wanted to clarify whether SRC reduces cardiac events in patients with HF.Methods and Results:Overall, 800 patients (77±12 years) who were hospitalized for HF were enrolled. During HF hospitalization, patients received SRC; patients were required to have a salt intake of <6 g/day. After discharge, death or HF rehospitalization events were investigated. During a mean follow-up of 319±252 days, 83 patients died, and 153 patients were rehospitalized for HF. SRC significantly decreased all-cause death (odds ratio, 0.42; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.23-0.76; P<0.01), especially cardiac death of hospitalized HF patients after discharge. In the multivariate analysis adjusted for age, sex, SRC, body mass index, hypertension, dyslipidemia, β-blockers, and mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist intake, cardiac rehabilitation, and the type of HF, SRC remained a significant predictor of death. Kaplan-Meier analysis showed that SRC significantly reduced deaths and the combined outcome of HF rehospitalization and death. In patients with reduced left ventricular ejection fraction, SRC significantly decreased the mortality rate (odds ratio, 0.27; 95% CI, 0.10-0.71; P<0.01).
CONCLUSIONS: SRC reduced the mortality rate after discharge of hospitalized HF patients.