Crit Care Med. 2021 Jun 24. doi: 10.1097/CCM.0000000000005173. Online ahead of print.
OBJECTIVES: In critically ill patients, dysnatremia is common, and in these patients, in-hospital mortality is higher. It remains unknown whether changes of serum sodium after ICU admission affect mortality, especially whether normalization of mild hyponatremia improves survival.
DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study.
SETTING: Ten Dutch ICUs between January 2011 and April 2017.
PATIENTS: Adult patients were included if at least one serum sodium measurement within 24 hours of ICU admission and at least one serum sodium measurement 24-48 hours after ICU admission were available.
MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: A logistic regression model adjusted for age, sex, and Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation-IV-predicted mortality was used to assess the difference between mean of sodium measurements 24-48 hours after ICU admission and first serum sodium measurement at ICU admission (Δ48 hr-[Na]) and in-hospital mortality. In total, 36,660 patients were included for analysis. An increase in serum sodium was independently associated with a higher risk of in-hospital mortality in patients admitted with normonatremia (Δ48 hr-[Na] 5-10 mmol/L odds ratio: 1.61 [1.44-1.79], Δ48 hr-[Na] > 10 mmol/L odds ratio: 4.10 [3.20-5.24]) and hypernatremia (Δ48 hr-[Na] 5-10 mmol/L odds ratio: 1.47 [1.02-2.14], Δ48 hr-[Na] > 10 mmol/L odds ratio: 8.46 [3.31-21.64]). In patients admitted with mild hyponatremia and Δ48 hr-[Na] greater than 5 mmol/L, no significant difference in hospital mortality was found (odds ratio, 1.11 [0.99-1.25]).
CONCLUSIONS: An increase in serum sodium in the first 48 hours of ICU admission was associated with higher in-hospital mortality in patients admitted with normonatremia and in patients admitted with hypernatremia.