Cureus. 2021 Jun 17;13(6):e15713. doi: 10.7759/cureus.15713.
Urinary tract infections (UTIs) can commonly occur within the first few weeks following kidney transplantation procedures. Although the management of asymptomatic bacteriuria and acute graft pyelonephritis is important to reduce the risk of graft rejections following kidney transplantation, the efficacy of antibiotics administration remains controversial among studies in the literature. The aim of this review is to elaborate more on asymptomatic bacteriuria following kidney transplantation and try to formulate proper evidence about the efficacy of antibiotics administration on eliminating the frequency of infections and enhancing the quality of care for patients. Most studies in the literature are observational, which are usually biased in the interventions. However, the current evidence regarding the management and screening of asymptomatic bacteriuria seems to discourage such an approach. Almost all of the included studies reported that antibiotic administration did not significantly lower the rates of secondary symptomatic UTIs or enhance the functions of the graft. In addition, there is no significant impact on mortality and other clinical outcomes. Lastly, the frequent administration of antibiotics can significantly increase the risk of recurrence due to the emergence of novel strains of bacteria that are resistant to the currently administered antibiotics making it unfavorable.