J Nephrol. 2021 Jun 19. doi: 10.1007/s40620-021-01087-x. Online ahead of print.
INTRODUCTION: Acute respiratory failure (ARF) is the main clinical sign of coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19), but little is known about the outcome of acute kidney injury (AKI) associated with ARF.
STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study on clinical features of adult patients hospitalized with COVID-19 between March 1st and April 30th, 2020 in the district of Piacenza (Italy).
RESULTS: Among 1894 hospitalized patients, 1701 affected by COVID-19 underwent at least two serum creatinine evaluations. According to KDIGO definitions, 233 of 1,701 patients (13.7%) developed AKI: 159, 34, and 40 had stage 1, 2 and 3 AKI, respectively. Patients with AKI were older (mean age 73.5 ± 14 years, range 24-95) than those without AKI (72 ± 14 years, range 20-102). In-hospital mortality was high in COVID patients (567/1701 patients, 33%), which almost doubled among AKI patients (132/233 patients, 57%), compared with those without AKI (p < 0.01). Risk factors for AKI included older age, male gender, diabetes and need for ventilation. Fourteen patients with stage 3 AKI underwent renal replacement therapy (RRT).
CONCLUSIONS: Hospitalized COVID-19 patients with AKI associated with ARF have poor chances of survival. Diagnosing and preventing the progression of renal damage is fundamental in order to delay initiating RRT, especially when resources are limited.