Front Med (Lausanne). 2021 May 31;8:646875. doi: 10.3389/fmed.2021.646875. eCollection 2021.
Background and Aims: Patients with acute decompensated (AD) cirrhosis are frequently readmitted to the hospital. An accurate predictive model for identifying high-risk patients may facilitate the development of effective interventions to reduce readmission rates. Methods: This cohort study of patients with AD cirrhosis was conducted at six tertiary hospitals in China between September 2012 and December 2016 (with 705 patients in the derivation cohort) and between January 2017 and April 2020 (with 251 patients in the temporal validation cohort). Least absolute shrinkage and selection operator Cox regression was used to identify the prognostic factors and construct a nomogram. The discriminative ability, calibration, and clinical net benefit were evaluated based on the C-index, area under the curve, calibration curve, and decision curve analysis. Kaplan-Meier curves were constructed for stratified risk groups, and log-rank tests were used to determine significant differences between the curves. Results: Among 956 patients, readmission rates were 24.58, 42.99, and 51.78%, at 30, 60, and 90 days, respectively. Bacterial infection was the main reason for index hospitalization and readmission. Independent factors in the nomogram included gastrointestinal bleeding [hazard rate (HR): 2.787; 95% confidence interval (CI): 2.221-3.499], serum sodium (HR: 0.955; 95% CI: 0.933-0.978), total bilirubin (HR: 1.004; 95% CI: 1.003-1.005), and international normalized ratio (HR: 1.398; 95% CI: 1.126-1.734). For the convenience of clinicians, we provided a web-based calculator tool (https://cqykdx1111.shinyapps.io/dynnomapp/). The nomogram exhibited good discrimination ability, both in the derivation and validation cohorts. The predicted and observed readmission probabilities were calibrated with reliable agreement. The nomogram demonstrated superior net benefits over other score models. The high-risk group (nomogram score >56.8) was significantly likely to have higher rates of readmission than the low-risk group (nomogram score ≤ 56.8; p < 0.0001). Conclusions: The nomogram is useful for assessing the probability of short-term readmission in patients with AD cirrhosis and to guide clinicians to develop individualized treatments based on risk stratification.