Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care. 2021 Jun 14. doi: 10.1097/MCO.0000000000000776. Online ahead of print.
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review aims to discuss recent developments in different topics regarding nutrition and acute pancreatitis (AP), including oral refeeding, nutritional therapy, and implications of gut microbiota.
RECENT FINDINGS: Obesity increases the risk for severe AP and mortality. Considering the worldwide obesity rates, this finding could have major implications in the global outcomes of patients admitted with AP. Recent research confirms that early oral feeding leads to shorter length of stay, fewer complications, and lower costs. In case of intolerance to oral feeding or severe disease, nutritional therapy should be offered within 24-72 h, whereas enteral nutrition (EN) has been shown superior to parenteral nutrition. EN can be administered through gastric or jejunal feeding, depending on digestive tolerance and the presence of ileus. Nevertheless, modalities of EN in patients undergoing endoscopic drainage of pancreatitis-related collections are still undetermined. Weight-loss after discharge occurs frequently and could reflect post-AP pancreatic exocrine failure. Finally, novel research regarding gut microbiota could open new therapeutic opportunities to prevent bacterial translocation and pancreatic necrosis' infection.
SUMMARY: Despite available evidence many questions regarding nutritional management in patients with AP remain open. Modulation of gut microbiota could play an important role in further therapeutic management.