BMC Infect Dis. 2021 Jun 14;21(1):571. doi: 10.1186/s12879-021-06287-1.
BACKGROUND: Antibiotic resistance is increasing among urinary pathogens, resulting in worse clinical and economic outcomes. We analysed factors associated with antibiotic-resistant bacteria (ARB) in patients hospitalized for urinary tract infection, using the comprehensive French national claims database.
METHODS: Hospitalized urinary tract infections were identified from 2015 to 2017. Cases (due to ARB) were matched to controls (without ARB) according to year, age, sex, infection, and bacterium. Healthcare-associated (HCAI) and community-acquired (CAI) infections were analysed separately; logistic regressions were stratified by sex.
RESULTS: From 9460 cases identified, 6468 CAIs and 2855 HCAIs were matched with controls. Over a 12-months window, the risk increased when exposure occurred within the last 3 months. The following risk factors were identified: antibiotic exposure, with an OR reaching 3.6 [2.8-4.5] for men with CAI, mostly associated with broad-spectrum antibiotics; surgical procedure on urinary tract (OR 2.0 [1.5-2.6] for women with HCAI and 1.3 [1.1-1.6] for men with CAI); stay in intensive care unit > 7 days (OR 1.7 [1.2-2.6] for men with HCAI). Studied co-morbidities had no impact on ARB.
CONCLUSIONS: This study points out the critical window of 3 months for antibiotic exposure, confirms the impact of broad-spectrum antibiotic consumption on ARB, and supports the importance of prevention during urological procedures, and long intensive care unit stays.