Curr Neurol Neurosci Rep. 2021 Jun 14;21(8):41. doi: 10.1007/s11910-021-01124-z.
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: In recent years, the spectrum of neurological manifestations of antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) has been growing. We provide a critical review of the literature with special emphasis on presentation, proposed mechanisms of disease, and treatment of neurological involvement in APS.
RECENT FINDINGS: Although stroke is the most common cause of neurological manifestations in patients with APS, other neurological disorders have been increasingly associated with the disease, including cognitive dysfunction, headache, and epilepsy. Direct oral anticoagulants have failed to show non-inferiority compared to vitamin K antagonists for the prevention of major thrombotic events. Antiphospholipid antibodies are often found in patients with acute COVID-19 but clear evidence supporting an association between these antibodies and the risk of thrombotic events, including stroke and cerebral venous thrombosis, is still lacking. APS patients may present with several distinct neurological manifestations. New criteria will facilitate the classification of patients presenting with increasingly recognized non-criteria neurological manifestations.