Abdom Radiol (NY). 2021 Jun 11. doi: 10.1007/s00261-021-03164-y. Online ahead of print.
PURPOSE: To assess the spectrum of computed tomography angiogram (CTA) abdominal and pelvic findings in critically ill COVID-19 patients and investigate correlation with CT chest scores.
METHODS: An IRB approved retrospective study of CTA of the chest, abdomen and pelvis between dates March 1st to September 15th, 2020 was performed in the hospitalized COVID-19 positive patients. CTA studies of solely the chest were excluded. Medical record review was performed to note patient demographics, CTA scan details and coagulation profile. CTA findings were reviewed to record vascular and non-vascular findings. CT chest was reviewed to calculate CT chest score. Logistic regression analyses were performed to correlate CT chest scores with odds of vascular and other abdomen-pelvis findings. A p < 0.05 was considered statistically significant.
RESULTS: A total of 45 consecutive hospitalized COVID-19 positive patients with 61 years mean age and M:F (2:1) gender ratio were evaluated, out of which majority 68.9% (n = 31) had CTA chest, abdomen and pelvis. The most common vascular findings were hematoma 46.7% (n = 21), active extravasation 24.4% (n = 11) and vascular occlusion 17.8% (n = 8). Higher CT chest scores were significantly associated with hematoma/extravasation (OR 1.19, 95% CI 1.07-1.34, p < 0.01). The most common non-vascular abdomen-pelvis findings were seen in organs gallbladder 20% (n = 9), liver 20% (n = 9) followed by kidney 15.6% (n = 7). Higher CT chest scores were significantly associated with bowel findings (OR 1.28, 95% CI 1.01-1.63, p < 0.05) and cholestasis (OR 13.3, 95% CI 1.28-138.9, p < 0.05).
CONCLUSION: Patients with moderate to severe COVID-19 pneumonia have significantly higher rate of vascular complications in the abdomen and pelvis.