Ann Intern Med. 2021 Jun 8. doi: 10.7326/M21-1206. Online ahead of print.
Nonvariceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding is common, morbid, and potentially fatal. Cornerstones of inpatient management include fluid resuscitation; blood transfusion; endoscopy; and initiation of proton-pump inhibitor therapy, which continues in an individualized manner based on risk factors for recurrent bleeding in the outpatient setting. The International Consensus Group released guidelines on the management of nonvariceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding in 2019. These guidelines provide a helpful, evidence-based roadmap for management of gastrointestinal bleeding but leave certain management details to the discretion of the treating physician. Here, 2 gastroenterologists consider the care of a patient with nonvariceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding from a peptic ulcer, specifically debating approaches to blood transfusion and endoscopy timing in the hospital, as well as the recommended duration of proton-pump inhibitor therapy after discharge.