Acta Cardiol. 2021 Jun 3:1-7. doi: 10.1080/00015385.2021.1890925. Online ahead of print.
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: The prevalence and prognostic implications of heart failure (HF), as a complication of COVID-19 infection remains unclear. We performed a systematic review and metanalysis aimed to evaluate the pooled incidence of acute HF as a cardiac complication of COVID-19 disease and to estimate the related mortality risk in these patients.
METHODS: Data were obtained searching MEDLINE, Scopus and Web of Science for all investigations published any time to 26 December 2020. If statistical heterogeneity was 50%, the results were derived from the fixed-effects model otherwise the random-effects model.
RESULTS: Overall, 1064 patients [mean age 66 years, 618 males] were included in the final analysis reviewing six investigations. The cumulative in-hospital rate of COVID-19 patients complicated by acute HF ranged between 6.9 and 63.4% among the studies reviewed. A random effect model revealed a pooled incidence of COVID-19 patients complicated by acute HF in 20.2% of cases (95% CI: 11.1-33.9%, p < 0.0001 I2 = 94.4%). A second pooled analysis, based on a random-effect model, confirmed a significant increased risk of death in COVID-19 patients complicated by acute HF during the infection (OR 9.36, 95% CI 4.76-18.4, p < 0.0001, I2 = 56.6%). Meta-regression analysis, using age as moderator variable, failed in founding a statistically significant relationship with the incidence of acute HF onset as a complication of COVID-19 disease (p = 0.062) or the mortality risk among the same subjects (p = 0.053).
CONCLUSIONS: Acute HF represents a frequent complication of COVID-19 infection associated with a higher risk of mortality in the short-term period.