Heart Fail Clin. 2021 Jul;17(3):387-395. doi: 10.1016/j.hfc.2021.02.005.
Heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) is a clinical syndrome of shortness of breath and/or exercise intolerance secondary to elevated left ventricular filling pressures at rest or with exertion either as a result of primary diastolic dysfunction (primary HFpEF) or secondary to specific underlying causes (secondary HFpEF). In secondary HFpEF, early intervention of underlying valvular heart disease generally improves symptoms and prolongs survival. In primary HFpEF, there is increasing awareness of the existence and prognostic implications of secondary atrioventricular valve regurgitation. Further studies will clarify their mechanisms and the effectiveness of valvular intervention in this intriguing HFpEF subgroup.