Heart Fail Clin. 2021 Jul;17(3):357-367. doi: 10.1016/j.hfc.2021.03.005.
Heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) and chronic kidney disease (CKD) constitute a high-risk phenotype with significant morbidity and mortality and poor prognosis. Multiple proinflammatory comorbid conditions influence the pathogenesis of HFpEF and CKD. Renal dysfunction in HFpEF is a consequence of the complex interplay between hemodynamic factors, systemic congestion, inflammation, endothelial dysfunction, and neurohormonal mechanisms. In contrast to heart failure with reduced ejection fraction, there is a dearth of effective targeted therapies for HFpEF. Tailoring study design toward the different phenotypes and delving into their pathophysiology may be fruitful in development of effective phenotype-specific targeted pharmaceutical therapies.