Heart Fail Clin. 2021 Jul;17(3):447-462. doi: 10.1016/j.hfc.2021.03.006.
Heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) burden is increasing. Its diagnostic process is challenging and imprecise due to absence of a single diagnostic marker, and the multiparametric echocardiography evaluation needed. Left ventricular (LV) ejection fraction (LVEF) is a limited marker of LV function; thus, allocating HF phenotypes based on LVEF can be misleading. HFpEF encompasses a broad spectrum of causes, and its diagnostic criteria give a central role to echocardiography, a first-line technique with inherent limitations related to ultrasound capabilities. Conversely, cardiac magnetic resonance provides superior anatomic and functional assessment, enabling tissue characterization, offering unprecedented diagnostic precision.