Cardiovasc Revasc Med. 2021 Apr 6:S1553-8389(21)00188-3. doi: 10.1016/j.carrev.2021.03.028. Online ahead of print.
BACKGROUND: Myocardial injury is a complication of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). We describe a large multi-center experience of COVID-19 patients with myocardial injury, examining the prognostic role left ventricular function plays on short-term outcomes.
METHODS/MATERIALS: We included adult COVID-19 patients admitted to our health system with evidence of myocardial injury and who underwent a transthoracic echocardiogram (TTE) during index admission. Patients were dichotomized into those with reduced ejection fraction (EF; <50%) and preserved EF (≥50%).
RESULTS: Across our 11-hospital system, 5032 adult patients were admitted with COVID-19 from March-September 2020. Of these, 235 had evidence of myocardial injury (troponin ≥1 ng/mL). Included were 134 patients who underwent TTE, of whom 43.3% (n = 58) had reduced EF and 56.7% (n = 76) preserved EF. A subset of 6 patients had newly reduced EF, with 5 demonstrating evidence of stress cardiomyopathy and subsequently dying. Overall, mortality was high in those with reduced EF and preserved EF (in-hospital: 34.5% vs. 28.9%; p = 0.494; 6 months: 63.6% vs. 50.0%; p = 0.167; Kaplan-Meier estimates: p = 0.2886). Readmissions were frequent in both groups (30 days: 22.2% vs. 26.0%; p = 0.162; 6 months: 52.0% vs. 54.5%; p = 0.839).
CONCLUSIONS: Many COVID-19 patients admitted with evidence of myocardial injury did not undergo TTE. For those who did, short-term mortality was high. Patients who survived hospitalization had frequent readmissions. In patients with newly reduced EF, most had evidence of stress cardiomyopathy and expired. Larger studies are needed to fully evaluate the prognosis of COVID-19 patients with evidence of myocardial injury and left ventricular dysfunction.